Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) is a therapeutic approach developed by Dr. Marsha M. Linehan in the late 20th century, initially designed to treat individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Over time, it has been adapted to address various emotional and behavioral difficulties. 


DBT is a comprehensive and evidence-based cognitive-behavioral therapy. It integrates various therapeutic techniques and strategies to help individuals manage intense emotions, improve their interpersonal relationships, and reduce self-destructive behaviours.


Key components of DBT include:

  1. Dialectics: Central to DBT is the concept of dialectics, which involves recognising and reconciling opposing or seemingly contradictory ideas. In therapy, this means finding a balance between acceptance and change, acknowledging the validity of both perspectives.

  2. Mindfulness: Mindfulness skills are a fundamental part of DBT. Practicing mindfulness involves being fully present in the moment, non-judgmentally, and observing one’s thoughts and feelings without reacting impulsively.

  3. Emotion Regulation: Individuals in DBT learn strategies to identify, understand, and effectively manage their emotions. This includes recognising emotional triggers and developing healthier ways to cope with distress.

  4. Distress Tolerance: DBT teaches techniques to handle crises and overwhelming emotions without resorting to self-destructive behaviours. These skills help individuals withstand emotional pain until it subsides.

  5. Interpersonal Effectiveness: This component focuses on improving communication and interpersonal relationships. It provides individuals with skills for effective assertiveness, setting boundaries, and resolving conflicts.

  6. Individual Therapy: Clients meet with a trained therapist one-on-one to work on their specific issues and develop personalised coping strategies.

  7. Group Skills Training: Clients attend group sessions where they learn and practice DBT skills in a structured and supportive environment.

  8. Phone Coaching: Clients often have access to phone coaching, allowing individuals to reach out to their therapist between sessions for skills use guidance during moments of crisis.


DBT is particularly effective for individuals with maladaptive undercontrol, emotional dysregulation, self-harm tendencies, and unstable relationships, but it can be valuable for a wide range of conditions where emotional regulation is a concern. Research has shown that DBT can help reduce symptoms of depression, anxiety, and other mood disorders while enhancing overall quality of life.


It’s essential to note that DBT is a structured and long-term treatment, and its success depends on the collaboration between the therapist and the client. The therapy aims to promote behavioral changes, emotional stability, and a sense of mastery over one’s life. Clients typically go through multiple stages of treatment, working on different aspects as they progress.